Today's the day that it's finally starting to come together. My friend Clydefrog came over, and he had the crankpullers that I didn't, as well as a bit (lot) more bicycle knowledge than I do. He came, and instantly diagnosed the bottom bracket as a cartridge, which was music to my ears. We took the drive-side crank off, and the entire crank set with it. However, we almost stripped the crank and nearly ruined the crank puller. But, we persevered, and eventually got it off in one piece.
Before doing anything with that, I sanded down the chainstay that was wrecked by the gears, and sprayed on a clear coat to keep the rust out, and it looks a lot better.
Then, to avoid the chainrings digging into the frame again, we needed to rig up something to keep it away from the frame. Clyde, coming from the school of thought of having things look good and work well, wanted to put some washers on the crank nut, however, that didn't solve the problem, the crank still wanted to move inward on the bottom bracket. Me, coming of the school of thought of having things work, well or not, I punched a hole in a bottle cap, sawed it off, and then slid it on the axle to keep the crank out. After a couple drops of lube, it works. I understand that this is only solving a symptom of the greater problem, but one of my goals is to do this on as little money as possible, if any at all.
The derailleur limits had to be changed, since the crank set was further out. I decided that realistically, we'd only be using the lowest gear, so I just took it off. Tomorrow I'll need to finish cleaning the chain. Overall, today was a very productive day.
The Chainstay after the crank set was taken off, really rusty and awful-looking.
After sanding it off and spraying on a clear coat, it doesn't necessarily look good, but it looks better, and is better.
Intense enough? Clydefrog's feet make a Cameo.
Nut and washers, wasn't used
The bottle cap on the axle. I used a 1/2" Spade Drill Bit, (the cutting one) and just rotated it by hand util I got a 1/2" hole. The plastic I used was soft enough that I didn't have to use a drill.
After sawing it off. If I can find washers large enough, I'll replace it, because while there would be a bit more friction, but it'll be more sturdy.
It's no longer dug into the chainstay, but this picture's also evidence of how much more I need to do on the chain.
Another angle of above.